Topic for Final Paper (Hana Sayedi)

1) Question: In what ways were officials in nineteenth century Brazil threatened by capoeira, calling it a “dangerous criminal act?”

2) Your Argument/Answer: Officials during the nineteenth century Brazil viewed capoeira as a public menace and desired to extinguish it primarily because of their fear of disorder of the black slaves.

3) Three evidences to support thesis:

* D. Pedro II. Diario da viagem ao Norte do Brasil (1859), Salvador: 1959 (Portuguese)

* A guide to the history of Brazil 1500-1822

* The Criminalization of Capoeira in the Nineteenth-Century Brazil; By: Maya Talmon Chvaicer

Hispanic American Historical Review, 82:3, August 2002, pp. 525-547; Published by Duke University Press

Blog #8 Tensions- Viviana

This week the readings focuses on the many challenges that the Portuguese faced during their gold mining expansion in Brazil. Some of the challenges are described in “The Secret Instructions of Viceroy” the struggle is the power control of portuguese and the difficulties when appointing portuguese officials. The land and sea barrier between the Portuguese crown and the Brazilian Frontier serves as an example of the difficulty the Portuguese faced to remain in control and the rebellions that were ignited. Therefore, as gold was increased and popularized among traders causing limitations on smuggling and mining control. The riots that arose were influenced by the solidarity amongst the Brazilians to reject the Portuguese authority during the eighteen century.

Blog Update #7 (Hana Sayedi)

The bandeirantes are a pivotal part of Brazil’s colonial history.  They were known as courageous men from the state of São Paulo, whom searched for riches such as gold and silver.  They went on expeditions, although they were natives.  Because of their expeditions, they were largely responsible for expanding Brazil’s territorial regions.  They pushed borders outwards, disregarding the Treaty of Tortesillas.  The bandeirantes went on these expeditions after the downfall of the sugar economy.  An important bandeirante was Antônio Raposo Tavares.  Tavares captured close to 3000 Natives.  He reached the Amazon river along with fellow bandeirante Fernando dias Pias.  Perhaps his most significant accomplishment was his finding of gold in Minas Gerias in the 1700s.  This lead to waves immigrants flooding Brazilian territory from Portugal and other islands.  Due to this finding, Minas Gerais became one of the richest places in the colonial world, at that time. The bandeirantes had a profound impact on the expansion and economy of colonial Brazil.  They are still regarded as the “founders” of Brazil today, especially in the present state of São Paulo.

Blog #8 Forrest Campbell

It was very interesting to read the Fausto readings and see the effects of shifts in European ideas directly affect their colonies and the colonies of their neighbors. Furthermore it was interesting to read the slow decline that Portugal faced during the time period and their attempts to maintain control over their colonies economics and the effects those attempts had. To better control their colonies(specifically Brazil)  and gain revenue from them they tried to forcefully collect their taxes which led to new and different problems in Brazil. The riots described in Minas uprising reading and their motivations are eerily similar to what was going on in the British North American colonies that would become the United States only a few decades later and seeing the different response to those activities was very interesting to see.

 

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The Bandeirantes were a fierce group of men from Sao Paulo. Many of these men were land owners, military men, and traders. They led many expeditions were they captured and enslaved many Amerindians without pay; however their main objective was to expand the territory.Bandeirantes are seen as heroic and brave. They are seem by many Paulistas as the “founders of Brazil,” because they grew the jurisdictions and the mineral filled lands. For example, the gold rush found, brought in many immigrants to Brazil. The gold rush caused an even bigger need for slaves, also Amerindians were much cheaper than African slaves.

Blog Update #7(Forrest Campbell)

The Bandeirantes are an important part of brazilian history both for their glorious nature as well as their notorious part of history. While they are best known for expanding the Brazilian territory further northwest, settling the south and overall expanding Brazil to what it is now today. However they are also important for a different and more troubling reason as well. As both reading sections display these people were also involved in the bondage and the enslavement of indians they encountered in on their expeditions. While it was not de jure slavery, as the afro-brazilian would have experienced, the facets of chattel slavery – inheriting them, selling them, using them and their children for labor in perpetuity etc – were all present and puts an insight and a wrinkle onto Brazilian history than what would be originally seen elsewhere.

 

Blog Update #6 (Hana Sayedi)

In colonial Brazil, slaves made up the majority of the labor force. They worked in the fields and in the sugar mills primarily. However, they also worked as artisans, construction workers, street vendors, messenger boys, and other small jobs. Some slaves were rented to perform services for third parties “slave earners.” The term “Purity of Blood” signifies solely to the Portuguese white people. Impure blood consists of New Christians, free blacks, Indians, and different types of racially mixed people. Race relations in Brazil consisted of mulattos, mamelucos, curibocas, caboblos, and cafusos. The main difference between Indian slavery versus African slavery was that enslaved Indians or freed Indians captured were subject to live under the colonists’ tutelage. Rural landowners and merchants combined formed as the dominating class in colonial Brazil. Fausto notes that colonial Brazil is patriarchal, which means that the state also embodied that structure. Furthermore, Fausto explains that the relationship between the state and society was very complex.